Monday, March 12, 2018

Locomotive Builders' Prints, 19th C

Mid-1800s Locomotive Builders' Prints 
from The Boston Athenæum

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Twenty Four Ton Passenger Engine, 
'Gen. Stark'
delineated by Chas F Thomas 
of Taunton Mass.

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
McKay & Aldus Iron Works, East Boston, Mass. 
Manufacture Locomotive Engines & Tenders, 
Marine Engines, Iron & Wooden Steam Ships, 
Sugar Mills, Machinery &c. &c.

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Wm. Mason & Co. Builders, Taunton, Mass.

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Amoskeag Manufacturing Co. 

Outside Passenger Engine, 

Manchester, NH

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Boston Locomotive Works 1854 Holmes Hinkley, 
Agent, No. 380 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Mass.

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Locomotive for Passengers with Outside Cylinders. 
Built by the Lowell Machine Shop, 1852

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Manchester Locomotive Works Manufacturers of 
Locomotives, Stationary Steam Engines and Tools

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Locomotive Engine for Passengers as built by 
the Lowell Machine Shop, Lowell Mass. 1852

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Portland Company's Passenger Engine, 1854. Portland, Maine

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Lawrence Machine Shop, 
Lawrence, Mass. 
Passenger Engine 
'Abbott Lawrence', 22 Tons

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Portland Company's, 
Passenger Locomotive, 
'Minnehaha', 1856
John Sparrow Superintendent

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Taunton Locomotive 
Manf.g Co. Taunton Mass. 
William A Crocker, Treas.
Willard W Fairbanks, Agent

locomotive builder's lithograhic print
Wm. Mason, Taunton, Mass. 'Highland Light'

"The locomotive industry emerged in mid-nineteenth-century America with the development and rapid expansion of the railroad network. As the number of locomotive manufacturers increased, the industry became intensely competitive, and builders vied with one another to capture the attention of railroad companies, officials, and agents. The first locomotive builders’ prints were created in the late 1830s and ‘40s in response to this industry competition. These lithographic portraits of locomotives were soon considered to be essential to the manufacturers’ promotion of their machines. Locomotive builders’ prints differed from ordinary advertising prints or landscape views with picturesque trains. Instead, they were a unique type of print, a hybrid designed both to attract potential customers and to provide accurate technical information about locomotive engines and cars. [..] 
With the introduction of chromolithography in the 1840s and ‘50s, locomotive manufacturers began commissioning color prints of their engines. Early American locomotives were often painted and colorfully decorated; chromolithographic locomotive builders’ prints offer a rare insight into the decorative designs, finishes, and materials favored by manufacturers. The use of color in the 1850s ushered in what has been called the golden age of the locomotive builders’ prints. Larger in scale than the prints of the 1830s and early 1840s, they were composed of bold, opaque colors with glittering bronze and metallic powders. As locomotive manufacturers competed for the customer’s eye, lithographic artists began portraying locomotives in landscapes often with reference to the factories in which they were built. [..]
These lavish prints were much prized by locomotive manufacturers. [..] The November 8, 1856 issue of the Railroad Advocate stated that these prints were the “appropriate adornments for the offices of every variety of business connected with railroads; they are consulted by master mechanics and locomotive buyers; they are the master-pieces in the parlors of many engineers of good taste. . . .” The time and money invested in producing locomotive builders’ prints indicates that they were not typical advertising ephemera. In fact, they were clearly designed as framing prints to be hung in railroad offices and depots, hotels, saloons, and parlors where they might seduce not only prospective buyers but the general traveling public as well."

Sunday, November 5, 2017

Sword Hilt Designs (16 up to 18th C)

Antoine Jacquard (1610-1630)

Antoine Jacquard (1610-1630) a

Antoine Jacquard (1610-1630) b

Antoine Jacquard (1610-1630) c

Antoine Jacquard (1610-1630) d

A set of plates by Antoine Jacquard representing designs in blackwork for sword handles, dagger hilts and pommels, decorated with abstracted foliage, grotesques, chimeric figures and drolleries. Produced between about 1610 and 1630. [source]

Hans Holbein the Younger (1532-1543)

Dagger hilt with mushroom-shaped pommel featuring a grotesque mask and recurved quillons with ends scrolled like rams' horns; one of five designs for dagger hilts and pommels, from the 'Jewellery Book' by Hans Holbein the Younger in black ink and grey wash. Dates to around 1537. [source]

Hans Holbein the Younger (1536-1538) (Tate)

Another Holbein sketch from the from the same [~1537] 'Five Designs for Dagger Hilts and Pommels' series in which he has shaped the pommels and guards of these highly-finished designs from a variety of motifs in his repertoire, fitting grotesque heads, musicians, acanthus leaves, scaly tentacles and rams’ horns with flowing ease into the required forms of the dagger hilts. [source]

It is thought that one of the most important dimensions of Holbein's tenure at the English royal court was ornamental weaponry design. These hilt types bear stylistic similarities to, for instance, the kind of dagger seen in the drawing of King Henry VIII on this page from the Tate Holbein exhibition site.

{slight tangent: It is probably no little coincidence, then, that the Swiss artist, Urs Graf, incorporated Holbein's famous Danse Macabre figures into an engraved dagger and scabbard design}

Heinrich Aldegrever 1536 (HAB)

Heinrich Aldegrever 1537 (HAB)

Heinrich Aldegrever 1539 (HAB)

Dagger hilt and sheath designs by Heinrich Aldegrever from the late 1530s with acanthus foliage and grotesque motifs. [images spliced together from screencaps] [source]

{Aside: As I recall, Aldegrever wasn't the only artist to copy the Dürer monogram design}

Peter Flötner design (1495-1546)

Peter Flötner design (1495-1546) a

Peter Flötner design (1495-1546) b

Peter Flötner* hilt designs featuring arabesques, grotesques, trophies and weapon mascarons from the first half of the 16th century [source]

Nuremberg hilt 1540s probably Flötner (Met.)

"Original designs for Renaissance swords are exceptionally rare, although notable examples by such renowned artists as Hans Holbein the Younger and Giulio Romano are preserved. Previously unrecorded, the present drawing is a significant addition to this small corpus and is a work of art in its own right. The style and iconography point to Nuremberg and possibly to Peter Flötner* (ca. 1485–1546), one of that city's most versatile artists.

Of robust proportions, the hilt was presumably intended as a side arm to be executed in chased silver or gold. The pommel is conceived in the round with four female heads beneath an imperial crown, while the grip is embellished with a double-headed imperial eagle incorporated into a classical trophy of arms. The guard, formed of undulating branches of acanthus leaves and scrolls, is asymmetrical, one quillon ending in a shield-bearing demi-lion and the other in a Janus head. A lion's head at the intersection of the quillons anchors the composition.

The design is novel and has strong Italianate features, hallmarks of Flötner's oeuvre. The trophies in particular recall one of the artist's woodcut designs for a dagger grip. The distinctive crowned pommel, on the other hand, is virtually identical to one in the design for a sword of Emperor Charles V that is dated 1544 and ascribed to the celebrated Nuremberg goldsmith Wenzel Jamnitzer* (1508–1585). The present drawing, however, reflects none of the Mannerist aesthetic of Jamnitzer's art and is clearly by a different hand and probably of a slightly earlier date. However, the presence of the imperial iconography suggests that it too was created for Charles V." [source]

Giulio Romano sketch (between about 1520 and 1546)

A sword hilt with the pommel in the form of a mountain surrounded by a spiral path leading to a temple, drawn by Giulio Romano in pen and brown ink between about 1520 and 1546. The Mount Olympus, as represented here, with the addition of the words "Fides" and "Olympus", was an impressa of the ruler of Mantua, Federico II Gonzaga* (this detail both helps date the design and gives some - although not conclusive - indication of its origins). [source]

Wenzel Jamnitzer (1550s)

1550s design for a dagger and sheath by Wenzel Jamnitzer in brown and black ink, graphite, grey wash and gold hightlighting (the fire). The weapon is decorated with 'the defiance of Mucius Scaevola'*, grotesque figures and an interlace of arabesques, among the many intricate ornamental details. [source]

Pierre Woeiriot 1555-1562 c

Pierre Woeiriot 1555-1562

Pierre Woeiriot 1555-1562 a

Pierre Woeiriot 1555-1562 b

Pierre Woeiriot 1555 (MFA)

Pierre Woeiriot 1555-1562 V+A

"This engraving, designed and engraved by Pierre Woëriot, shows a handle and a guard for a sword. The design is inspired by the grotesque, with imaginary creatures bending into the swordhilt. The original design drawing is also in the Museum’s collection (Museum no E.664-1929) this is a copy with slight variations.

Ornament designs like this were copied by artisans and craftsmen. The theme of the grotesque was a popular one around this period. Grotesque derives from the Italian word grottesco. The style was inspired by ancient Roman designs discovered at the end of the 15th century in the underground rooms, or grottoes, of the Golden House of Emperor Nero in Rome. Grotesque ornament was used to decorate a wide range of objects, such as ceramics, and the style was much copied by Renaissance artists."

Anonymous 16th C (recto) (related to Woeiriot)

Anonymous 16th C (related to Woeiriot)

The above eight incredibly imaginative sword and dagger hilt designs featuring a wide range of structural and ornamental motifs such as chimeric figures, nudes, acanthus leaves, grotesque masks and animal heads. The designs, from about the 1550s and 1560s, are by the French goldsmith and artist Pierre Woeiriot II [Woëriot] (the last couple are either by, or modelled after, Woeiriot's work). [sources: BM, MFA, RM, V&A]

Wenceslaus Hollar 1630-1670 (Toronto)

Wenceslaus Hollar 1630-1670 (Toronto) a

Sword, dagger and scabbard designs by Hans Holbein the Younger and engraved by Wenceslaus Hollar. They date to around the 1640s. [source]

renaissance sword hilt design

Hilt design in brown ink and inkwash, graphite and white chalk by Polidoro Caldara (aka Polidoro da Caravaggio) from around 1510 to 1540 [source]

16th century arabesque hilt design

Sword hilt, from the mid-1500s, designed by Bernard Salomon featuring arabesques. [source]

L'Oeuvre de Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier (series title) (by Gabriel Huquier; 1738-1751)

This is a republished print from a 1740 series by Gabriel Huquier called 'L'Oeuvre de Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier'. The original Meissonnier designs had been commissioned for rococo goldsmiths: one of these swords was produced for the 1725 wedding between King Louis XV and Maria Leszczyńska of Poland. [source]

belt, sword hilt and jewellery designs

Belt, hilt and sundry jewellery designs engraved by RJ Folkemma from the series, 'Liüre de Feüillages et d'Ouvrages d'Orfevrerie Inventees par JL Juge', first published in about 1670 [source].

Jean Toutin 1619

Design for a hilt in blackwork with pea pods surrounded by two goldsmiths, and a small scene with two swordsmen fighting [1619]. From a small and beautiful series by French enamel-worker, Jean Toutin* [source]

Modèle de l'épée de Louis XVI, en diamants roses de la Couronne, exécutée le 30 novembre 1789 (engraved by Armano)  (Versailles)

Model of Louis* XVI's coronation sword embellished with rose diamonds. Engraved by Armano in September 1789 (!). [source]

Patna design (about 1800)

Ornamental dagger hilt design in ink and inkwash, produced in Patna (India) in about 1800. [source]

Rajasthani design (17th or 18th cent.) MFA

Hilt design in ink and coloured chalk, produced in Rajasthan (India) in the 17th or 18th centuries. [source]

GG McCrae 1800s Design for Naval Sword hilt (NLA)

Design for a naval sword hilt from a watercolour and ink album produced in the late 1800s by GG McCrae* [source]

'Pattern book for jewellers' by A Fischer (1880s) (NYPL)

This plate from an 1880s pattern book for jewellers by A Fischer features various jewels by Tissot as well as the design for a presentation sword hilt. [source]

[In most cases you can click through to an enlarged version. Some of the images were very mildly background cleaned. All those with a black surrounding border were spliced together from screencaps]

This is, without question, a woefully inadequate overview and selection and I probably could have spent another week sifting for further images. I was heartened to read the Met. Museum blurb advising that there aren't that many original Renaissance-era hilt designs around.

Rapier Parts

Sunday, September 10, 2017

The Natural History of Palm Trees, 19th C

Attalea - Cocos - Sabal species

Borassus flabelliformis

Acrocomia sclerocarpa

Areca nibung

Astrocaryum species

Palm species

Palm species sections

Palm species sections a

Bactris longipos + Cocos botryophora

Ceratolobus glaucescens

Copernica ceifera

Daemonorops melanochaetes

Thrinax brasiliensis

Zalacca wallichiana

Desmoncus polyacanthos

Elaeis melanococca

Livistona humilis

Livistona humilis (fruit + seeds)

Sagus taedigera

Eugeisona tristis

Eugeisona tristis (detail)

palm symmetry

Plectocomia khasiyana

"The author of over 150 botanical titles, including the great flora of Brazil, Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius also wrote the still-definitive three-volume treatise on the palm family, one of the first plant monographs. He developed his life-long fascination with palms during an expedition through Brazil [map] from 1817 to 1820, and he worked nearly 30 years to prepare this grand summation, including palms found only as fossils." [source]

All three volumes of 'Historia Naturalis Palmarum' are available at the Botanicus website from the Missouri Botanical Gardens. This lavishly illustrated series included systematic descriptions of all known species in the palm family (Arecaceae). The illustrations were produced by Martius himself and Ferdinand Bauer (among others).

You can get an idea of how enormous the available jp2 image files of each chromolithograph are by clicking on those couple of illustration details towards the end of the sampling above. [each image file is about 3Mb and converts to ~20Mb jpeg files] Mouse over the images - taken from all three volumes - for the botanical names (in most cases).